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  1. Zia Shah

    Relics of Nestorianism — In 325, the first ecumenical council (First Council of Nicaea) determined that Jesus Christ was God, “consubstantial” with the Father, and rejected the Arian contention that Jesus was a created being. This was reaffirmed at the First Council of Constantinople (381) and the Council of Ephesus (431).After the Council of Ephesus had condemned Nestorianism, there remained a conflict between Patriarchs John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. Cyril claimed that John remained Nestorian in outlook, while John claimed that Cyril held to the Apollinarian heresy. The two settled their differences under the mediation of the Bishop of Beroea, Acacius, on April 12, 433. In the following year, Theodoret of Cyrrhus assented to this formula as well, apparently putting a rest to Nestorianism forever within the Roman Empire.However, the works of two deceased Antiochean theologians, Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, were at this time translated into Syriac. By the intervention of Archbishop Proclus of Constantinople, the two theologians were condemned throughout the East, but this situation would later provide the material for the Second Council of Constantinople some hundred years later.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Chalcedon

  2. Zia Shah

    Council of Chalcedon — The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held in 451 from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), on the Asian side of the Bosporus.The Council of Chalcedon was convened by Flavian’s successor, Anatolius, at Pope Leo I’s urging, to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus, better known as the “Robber Council”. The Council of Chalcedon repudiated the idea that Jesus had only one nature, and stated that Christ has two natures in one person. The Chalcedonian Creed describes the “full humanity and full divinity” of Jesus, the second person of the Holy Trinity. The council also issued 27 disciplinary canons governing church administration and authority. In the famous 28th canon passed by the council, the bishops sought to raise the See of Constantinople (New Rome) in stature, claiming that Constantinople enjoyed honor and authority similar to that of the See of (older) Rome. Pope Leo’s legate opposed the canon but in 453, Leo confirmed all the canons, except the 28th.The Council is considered by the Roman Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, the Old Catholics, and various other Western Christian groups to have been the Fourth Ecumenical Council . As such, it is recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches (then one church). Most Protestants also consider the concept of the Trinity as defined by these councils to be orthodox doctrine to which they adhere. However, the Council resulted in a major schism, with those who refused to accept its teaching, now known as Oriental Orthodoxy, being accused of monophysitism. The Oriental Orthodox churches reject the “monophysite” label and instead describe themselves as miaphysite. This council is the last council that is recognised by the Anglican Communion.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Chalcedon

  3. Zia Shah

    John of Antioch — John of Antioch was Patriarch of Antioch (429–441) and led a group of moderate Eastern bishops during the Nestorian controversy. He is sometimes confused with John Chrysostom, who is occasionally also referred to as John of Antioch. John gave active support to his friend Nestorius in the latter’s dispute with Cyril of Alexandria. In the year 431, he arrived too late for the opening meeting of the First Council of Ephesus. Cyril, suspecting John of using procrastinating tactics to support Nestorius, decided not to wait and convened the council without John and his supporters, condemning Nestorius. When John reached Ephesus a few days after the council had begun, he convened a counter-council which condemned Cyril and vindicated Nestorius.Two years later, in 433 John reconciled with Cyril based on the Formula of Reunion, a theological formula devised as a compromise. In the process, John lost many of his own supporters within his patriarchate. Some of his letters are extant.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Antioch

  4. Zia Shah

    My take on Prof. Bart Ehrman — Prof. Bart Ehrman is an agnostic scholar of the New Testament. If the agnostic and the religious scholars of the Bible, hold honest discussions about the Bible, the Holy Quran wins! What does this mean? If we preserve the best and accurate in the Bible and Christianity what survives is Islam!Try me, and read the different books of Prof. Bart Ehrman and listen to his interviews and debates available on the Youtube. And, of course, if you are not a Muslim and do not know about the Holy Quran, you have to learn about it from the Muslim sources, in addition to the usual Christian experts on Islam. Here is a Google Knol for starters: http://knol.google.com/k/zia-shah/the-holy-quran-as-the-miracle-of-the/1qhnnhcumbuyp/55# My Christian friends have to remember that they have to spend enough hours in learning the Holy Quran to overcome their decades of pre-conceived biases and centuries of Islamophobic propaganda. And remember, according to Confucius, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”Also read my review of a book of Ehrman:http://www.muslimsunrise.com/dmddocuments/2010_summer.pdf#page=37

  5. Zia Shah

    Difficulty in conceptualizing the hybrid of Jesus Christ — Verdict of the Iconoclastic Council:”Whoever makes an image of Christ either pictures the divinity, which cannot be pictured, and mixes it up with the humanity like the Monophysites, or they represent the body of Christ as if it were not made divine, as if it were a separate person, like the Nestorians …”To contradict this read the verdict of the second Council of Nicaea also called the seventh Ecumenical Council, accepted by the Roman Catholic as well as the Eastern Orthodox Church:”Although the Catholic Church pictures Christ in his humanity, it does not separate his flesh from the Divinity that is joined with it. On the contrary it believes that the flesh is deified and professes it to be one with the Divinity.”This is merely a play on the words, for the mortal human mind does not know what deified flesh is? Flesh is human, has 46 chromosomes, enzymes, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, deified flesh is an oxymoron!

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